What Is Ethereum?

What Is Ethereum?

In a 2014 whitepaper, Vitalik Buterin presented Ethereum to the world. He and Joe Lubin co-founded the Ethereum blockchain a year later. The open-source, decentralized blockchain is well recognized for its smart contract features, which led to its adoption among NFTs.

To recap, a blockchain is a digitally distributed ledger that makes it easier to record transactions and information across a network. While there are several blockchains, Ethereum's distinguishing characteristic is that it was designed to host applications.

In a 2018 interview, Buterin discussed the topic and stated that "this idea of a blockchain with a built-in programming language as...what I thought was the easiest and... most logical way to create a platform that can support many more different apps".

The initial limitation of Bitcoin that he encountered motivated him to develop a solution that would enhance the capabilities of the current blockchain technology.

The highest volume of NFTs is found in Ethereum, which is currently the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization.

What is the difference between Ethereum & Ether (ETH)?

The currency used by Ethereum is called Ether, sometimes known as ETH. Like Polygon, Optimism, and Solana, Ethereum is a blockchain in and of itself, with ether (ETH) serving as the medium of exchange for transactions. Avalanche's AVAX, Solana's SOL, and Polygon's MATIC are all cryptocurrencies, as is ETH.

How does Ethereum work?

Ethereum is a Layer 1 (commonly referred to as "L1") blockchain, which means it independently processes and validates transactions. Ethereum enables anything from Decentralized Finance, often known as "DeFi," to the purchasing, selling, and storing of NFTs.

Ethereum can be compared to the structure of a house. Ethereum serves as the foundation layer for Layer 2 networks like Optimism and Arbitrum as an L1 chain. A summary of the finished operations on the Layer 1 chain is then stored by Layer 2 chains after transactions have been processed on their chain.

Is Ethereum's consensus mechanism Proof-of-Work or Proof-of-Stake?

All blockchain transactions go through a consensus mechanism to ensure that only validated blocks are added to a chain. This procedure contributes to a blockchain's decentralized, secure, and public character. The two prominent consensus systems are the Proof-of-Work method and the Proof-of-Stake approach.

When it first started in 2015, Ethereum used the Proof-of-Work approach, but in 2022, it switched to Proof-of-Stake in a process called as "The Merge." Proof-of-Work blockchains often require significantly more energy to validate transactions than Proof-of-Stake blockchains. Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake upgrade lowered energy consumption by 99.95%.

Since 2020, the Ethereum Foundation has been working on this consensus mechanism on a blockchain called "The Beacon Chain."

Although Ethereum's consensus method altered as a result of The Merge, the underlying blockchain technology remained the same. Consider it like a phone software update: your phone may have more features and perform faster, but it is still the same phone.

In the instance of Ethereum, the consensus process was changed from solving complicated mathematical problems to staking a significant number of Ether tokens (ETH).

What are the main uses of Ethereum?

Ethereum, as a versatile blockchain platform, has a wide range of use cases across various industries. Here are some of the main uses of Ethereum:

The main uses of Ethereum
The main uses of Ethereum

Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Ethereum has emerged as the foundation for DeFi applications. It enables the creation of decentralized lending platforms, decentralized exchanges, stablecoins, yield farming protocols, and other financial instruments that operate without intermediaries.

Smart Contracts and DApps: Ethereum's primary feature is its ability to execute smart contracts. Developers can build and deploy decentralized applications (DApps) on the Ethereum network, enabling innovative solutions across domains such as decentralized governance, supply chain management, gaming, digital identity, and more.

Tokenization and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs): Ethereum has been instrumental in the creation and crowdfunding of projects through ICOs. It allows for the tokenization of assets and the issuance of digital tokens, providing new ways to raise funds and engage with a global investor base.

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): Ethereum is widely used for the creation and trading of non-fungible tokens (NFTs). NFTs represent unique digital assets such as artwork, collectibles, virtual real estate, and in-game items. Ethereum's ERC-721 and ERC-1155 token standards have become the foundation for NFT ecosystems.

Decentralized Applications (DApps) and Web3: Ethereum powers the development of DApps that aim to create decentralized alternatives to traditional web applications. It enables the shift towards Web3, a vision of the internet where users have more control over their data, privacy, and online interactions.

Supply Chain and Logistics: Ethereum's transparency, immutability, and traceability features make it suitable for supply chain and logistics applications. It allows stakeholders to track and verify the movement of goods, authenticate product origin, and ensure compliance with standards.

Governance and DAOs: Ethereum provides the infrastructure for decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) and decentralized governance. It enables communities to collectively make decisions, vote on proposals, and govern projects in a transparent and decentralized manner.

How do I buy, store, and utilize Ethereum?

How do I buy ETH?
The cryptocurrency used to conduct transactions on the Ethereum blockchain is called Ether (ETH). Ethereum, the blockchain, cannot be owned or managed by one individual.

An Ethereum-compatible crypto wallet is required to purchase, sell, and store ETH. You have the option of directly purchasing ETH from an exchange like Coinbase or adding it to your wallet. Even the use of credit cards is supported by some wallets.

What can I store on Ethereum?
You can access cryptocurrencies, NFTs, DApps, and DAOs using an Ethereum-compatible cryptocurrency wallet that you have generated. Two prominent Ethereum wallets are MetaMask and Coinbase Wallet. Not all ETH-compatible crypto wallets support NFTs, so double-check if you intend to use your ETH to buy and trade NFTs.

When using ETH, will I have to pay for gas fees?
You will occasionally have to pay gas fees when using Ethereum, just like with any other blockchain. The payment required to complete transactions on the blockchain is referred to as a "gas fee" in web3. The node operators that maintain the blockchain are paid with these payments. By performing this validation, the blockchain is able to maintain an unalterable record.

Is Ethereum compatible with OpenSea?

Yes! Ethereum-compatible wallets and NFTs built on Ethereum are supported by OpenSea. Using OpenSea, you can purchase, sell, transfer, and mint Ethereum NFTs. Through the use of tools like our Trending chart and filtering for Ethereum, you can investigate Ethereum NFTs on OpenSea.


Ethereum is a groundbreaking blockchain platform that has revolutionized the world of decentralized applications (DApps) and smart contracts. It goes beyond being just a cryptocurrency and offers a robust infrastructure for developers to create innovative and decentralized solutions. Ethereum's programmable nature, secure and transparent blockchain, and active developer community have contributed to its widespread adoption and the emergence of various use cases.

As Ethereum continues to evolve, it faces challenges such as scalability and network congestion. However, ongoing upgrades like Ethereum 2.0 aim to address these issues and improve the platform's performance, efficiency, and security.


Q. Can I use Ethereum for investments?
A. Ethereum can be used for investment purposes, either by holding Ether as a long-term investment or by participating in decentralized finance (DeFi) protocols that offer various investment opportunities.

Q. What is the future of Ethereum?
A. Ethereum's future looks promising as it continues to evolve and address scalability challenges with the implementation of Ethereum 2.0. The platform is expected to continue driving innovation in the blockchain space, powering decentralized applications and shaping the future of finance, gaming, and more.

Q. What is the difference between Ethereum and Bitcoin?
A. While both Ethereum and Bitcoin are cryptocurrencies, they serve different purposes. Bitcoin primarily acts as a digital currency for peer-to-peer transactions, whereas Ethereum is a blockchain platform that enables the creation of smart contracts and decentralized applications.

Q. What defines Ethereum and Polygon?
A. Consider Polygon to be Ethereum's brother; the currencies are similar, but the two blockchains differ slightly. Their blockchain type explains these distinctions. Polygon is an L2 blockchain, as opposed to Ethereum, which is an L1 blockchain. Layer 2 (or "L2") blockchains are used to scale Layer 1 blockchains. Layer 2 chains execute transactions and then keep a summary of the completed operations on the Layer 1 chain.

Q. Is Ethereum secure?
A. Ethereum's blockchain is considered secure due to its decentralized and immutable nature. However, vulnerabilities can exist in individual smart contracts or applications built on top of Ethereum, emphasizing the importance of proper code auditing and security practices.